The purpose of this study is to explore the obstacles towards implementation of a public banking system within the United States through a review of the literature on public banking. A review of the literature on public banking demonstrates fluidity in the definition of public banking as legislative efforts attempt to take the path of least resistance towards implementation. This study provides macro and micro benefits and challenges for formation. Global examples of public banking systems are reviewed along with political challenges in coordination and cooperation learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. This literature review concludes with practitioner observations at the micro level on the potential impact in forming a public bank along with future research opportunities. The study also includes narrative around implementation challenges in determining capitalization requirements in the formation of a public bank.